Saturday, February 27, 2010

Tottenham Hotspur were different story. The League Cup was cherished, although it was poor revenge for yet another season the Spurs failed to play major role in the championship, finishing 8th. But all was relative in England: Manchester City, Chelsea, Manchester United, Everton were further down the table; Derby County, the champions of 1972, finished 7th; and Leeds United were 3rd, their great squad unable to win yet another year. The Spurs were neither surprise, nor disappointment – they usually occupied upper-mid-table place in those years. Good enough for a Cup – but where exactly the League Cup was placed in the English mind? Had to be third tournament in importance… Well, depends who one asks – may be third, may be second. Definitely second, if you ask winners.
Compared to Sunderland, certainly second: the Spurs were impressive team.
With Jennings, England, Chivers, Gilzean, Peters, and Perryman, the ‘North London Pride’ looks like title contender. Unlike Sunderland the Spurs did not stink in Europe – they won the UEFA Cup in 1972. Good and fine, but the team was aging. And the tendency of Pat Jennings to use only one hand for catching the ball was becoming more dangerous than fun.

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

England compensated for everybody – once again competitive league and new champion. The last time a club won two consecutive titles was in 1959 – Wolverhampton Wanderers – this alone was telling. And where were yesterday’s mighty winners in 1973? Hmm… Derby County, 1972 champions, finished 7th. Manchester City, 1968 champions, were 11th; Everton, 1970 champions, were 17th, just a place above the 1967 champions Manchester United. Manchester United that low? I could not believe my favourites, still with impressive squad, sinking, but – hey, worse was coming soon!
And this was not everything, of course: Norwich City, who finished 20th and were bound to enjoy Second Division the next season, reached the League Cup final – they lost to Tottenham Hotspur, but only 0-1. Sunderland, 6th in the Second Division, went even higher: they won the F.A. Cup beating Leeds United in front of 100 000 spectators 1-0. Some losers and some favourites!

Heroes indeed. The first Second Division team to win the Cup. In terms of Sunderland fanship – wonderful team. Two players managed to elevate themselves from anonymity: Denis Tueart (just as often spelled Tuart), who became a minor star in England, shuttling between England and USA by the end of the 1970s, and Dave Watson, who reached the national team with his uncompromising hard style. Not bad for Watson, considering the competition – particularly Colin Todd. Neither Tueart, nor Watson stayed with Sunderland for long. If Tueart joined the flock of European players grazing on the green US pastures, Watson went in different direction – one of the few English players who went to West Germany by the end of the decade. Werder (Bremen) in his case. The rest…is just the rest. In a way, teams like Sunderland were responsible for the sad disappearance of the Cup Winners Cup – the least exciting European club competition even in the early 70s, where small clubs and second division clubs often appeared. The holders of the English Cup made no waves in the tournament and quickly were eliminated. Outside English context – some heroes.

Monday, February 22, 2010

Which leaves us with jolly England – where total football impressed just like in Italy: nobody even thought of incorporating it. British football and championship is best, so why changing anything? Kind of… British has to be reduced to English. Scotland was still running 18-team First Division, dominated not even by two clubs, but one – Celtic were sole champions since 1966, and apart from the oldest derby in the world, Scottish football provided little fun. As for the other three championships in the British Isles, the less said the better – Wales did not even have a championship.

Back row, left to right: Jimmy Quinn, Bobby Murdoch, Tom Callaghan, Jim Craig, Evan Williams, Billy McNeill, Dennis Connaghan, George Conelly, Davie Hay, Vic Davidson, Pat McCluskey.
Front row: Paul Wilson, Jimmy Johnstone, Danny McGrain, Ken Dalglish, John Deans, Lou Macari, Bobby Lennox, Jim Brogan, Harry Hood.Good for another Scottish title and nothing else. Lou Macari was the player of the future, not Ken Dalglish - well, the future proved 1973’s expectations wrong. Macari was soon to experience Second Division football with Manchester United. As for the kilt… Luigi Macari was the son of Italian immigrants.

Saturday, February 20, 2010

The Cup went again to AC Milan – complete repetition of 1972: same champion, same cup winner. As for fun… only one team managed to score more than two goals per game average – AC Milan with 65. The second highest scoring team was Juventus – measly 45. Six clubs scored less than 20 goals during the season. Only six clubs ended with less than ten draws. Even with Zoff Juventus did not have the best defense – Lazio received less goals. Daggers and garrote…
AS Roma barely escaped relegation, finishing at 11th place, but four clubs ended with the same points and goal difference decided final place. AS Roma happened to have better negative goal difference than the unlucky Atalanta, with Sampdoria and L.R. Vicenza sandwiched between them – the Romans boasted handsome minus 5; Atalanta – minus 17 goals. Some success…

The photo is actually from 1971-72 season, which was hardly different or better…
Bottom, left to right: Cappellini, Del Sol, Salvori, Vieri, Amarildo.
Top: Bet, Ginulfi, Cordova, Scaratti, Petrelli, Santarini.
The old Spanish star Luis Del Sol (European Champions Cup holder with Real Madrid in 1960) retired, but the rest played… another ancient star, Amarildo (World Champion with Brazil in 1962) was to add even one more season (he and Del Sol already were playing in Italy when the ban on foreign players was decreed and were allowed to continue playing – by 1972-73, pretty much the last handful of foreigners in Italy, all near retirement). Left from Amarildo is Roberto ‘Bob’ Vieri – worth mentioning: certainly a familiar name? Yes, but it is his son Christian Vieri. As for Bob… not much to say about him, except that he eventually went to Australia, grew beard, played there, and fathered Christian. Judging by the squad, no wonder AS Roma struggled to remain in First Division. Even the hardest Roma fans did not dream of anything more than mid-table performance.

Wednesday, February 17, 2010

From Iberia to the Apennines, then. Dominated by defensive schemes, Italian football was rich on 0-0 draws. Similar to the Soviet football in this, but at least the meager results were fought for. Total football was admired and not followed at all – it is strange: Italy always gives the impression of creativity, flair, artful inventions, free wheeling, whimsicality, lack of discipline, and beauty. Yet, nothing of that was present in Italian football – even before dreadful catenaccio was invented defensive tactics were quite dominant. It is also strange to realize that Italians were never much of soldiers, in terms of disciplined tough armies, that is, but were more inclined towards the art of sneaky dagger and the garrote. Well, Italian teams knew the art of the dagger and the garrote too, but they were also disciplined as if they were German soldiers. Total football liberated creativity, yet the Italians chose not to try it – perhaps, they practiced half of it already, everybody defending, and as long as success smiled on them, why engaging in some risky attacking affairs? More realistically, tradition is difficult to break with and Italian coaches were old school. Aging too, so changes were not invited.

Juventus were champions, edging the opposition, building their more interesting to watch and younger team when Inter and Milan were reluctant to imagine life without Rivera and Mazzola. Essentially, Juventus was the same squad of the year before and the only interesting nuance was their coach – Cestmir Vycpalek. He was kind of temporary coach, yet worth mentioning: who, on earth, was this guy? Well, a Czech football player, a right winger, who moved in 1946 from Slavia (Prague) to Italy, where played for Juventus, Palermo, and Parma until 1958. Then he returned to Czechoslovakia, but the Soviet invasion in 1968 was not to his taste and he emigrated back to Italy, this time for good. For years his coaching career was mediocre, so at the end old connections with Juventus’ brass placed him in the club as coach of the youth team. Then again good connections seemed helpful: he was appointed to coach the first team – Italian league titles followed in 1972 and 1973, and more or less that was that. Whatever Vycpalek was as a coach, his team was somewhat different on the field than the usual Italian way of playing. May be his central-European sensibility revolted against dreadful catenaccio, who knows? His presence helped Juventus not only to the titles, but elevated the ‘old lady’ to dominance in Italy and European conquests eventually followed. The glory days were still far in the future, and Vycpalek was not part of them, but he started them somehow.

Or may be not… the new boy of the team, acquired from Napoli in 1972, was Dino Zoff (no need to introduce him) – 30 years old. He played 30 matches during the season – that is, every game, for Italy still had 16-team league – allowing only 22 goals in his net. It was this season which established Zoff as Italian number one, leaving his rival Albertosi on the reserves bench. Who was really better between the two? Hard to tell – Albertosi was preferred in the 1960s, becoming European champion in 1968. Zoff was the goalkeeper in the 70s and in 1982 he captained World champions.

So much for attacking football: the new star is 30-years old goalkeeper.

Monday, February 15, 2010

Not exactly familiar squad? Quite right – apart from Dinis, Damas, and Hilario nobody else really played for the national team, and even these three did not become major stars. Dinis was the best promise at the time, yet he faded quickly. On top of it, the photo itself is wrong, as if to confirm the relative obscurity of the club – by mistake of the printers, it appears blue and white. Perhaps true green and white Spoting fans were enraged by that. Sorry, Portugal had to wait for many more years until becoming football power again, and colours became familiar enough to avoid embarrassing mistakes. But Sporting faded further soon – with the emergence of powerful FC Porto, which somewhat switched domestic rivalry in different direction. More or less, this was the last year Sporting (Lisbon) were the number two club in Portugal.

Saturday, February 13, 2010

And brief departure to the other Iberian country, Portugal. Never among the big top championships, but with a good reputation because of the European success ob Benfica and Sporting in the first half of the 1960s. Golden period, more or less ending with the World Cup 1966, where Eusebio and Co thrilled the spectators. However, even Benfica in their best days was looked at with skepticism in Europe and the club never established the magical image preserved for Real, Inter, and Milan in public memory, save for Eusebio. The Portuguese league inspired even less enthusiasm and actually rightly: it was typical two-club dominated league at best – Benfica and Sporting provided for rivalry, splitting fans in Lisboa in the classic groups of ‘people’ vs ‘the state’, but on the pitch it was mostly Benfica anyway. A long hegemony, but by the end of the 1960s the squad was aging, including Eusebio, and nobody was emerging to replace him. Surely Benfica were still difficult to eliminate in Europe, but eliminated they were at least after the 1/8 finals. As for Sporting – hardly anybody paid attention to them. Which is the very reason for mentioning Portugal now: Benfica were still good enough to collect one more title, but Sporting grabbed the cup – pretty much the most they were able to do against Benfica.
One more title and this was not all: Benfica finished 18 points ahead of the second placed team. They did not lose a single game – 28 wins and 2 ties. Perfect home record – 15 wins from 15 games. They scored 101 goals and received only 13. The numbers were impressive – actually, a record unmatched in Europe. Fantastic team? Numbers and names suggests so: Eusebio, Simoes, Nene, Jorge (later highly respected coach), Humberto, Henrique, and the new promise Diamantino. A good mix of old stars, players in their prime, and young talent. Yet… Portuguese football was in decline. Benfica reigned supreme at home, where the opposition was weak. They were not that strong in the European tournaments. And the big names were not so big when playing for the national team.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Atletico (Madrid) won their 7th Spanish title – so far, they were the stronger challenger of Real (Madrid) since 1960. Perhaps one of the best periods for the ‘mattress makers’, perhaps they were just relatively better than most during shallow years for Spanish football, but one thing is certain – La Liga traditionally is very difficult. Real (Madrid) may had been in the dark – although Phil Ball argues the opposite in his excellent ‘White Storm. 101 Years Of Real Madrid’ – but their squad sounded more impressive than Atletico’s one, with Pirri, Velazquez, Zoco. Grosso and Amancio were still around and young Carlos Santillana was pushing into the first eleven. Atletico did not have such class, yet the last European trophy Real won was in 1966. After that even domestic title and cup were elusive and Chelsea snatched the Cup Winners Cup under the nose of the ‘white ballet’. Hardly a ballet by then. With Real down, the interesting trivia around Atletico’s title is historic: originally, they were founded as off-spring in a way of Athletic (Bilbao) – by some Basques moving to Madrid, and keeping their original affiliation alive. But what turns! Atletico became the ‘original’ Francoist club, renamed Aviacion – hardly something to keep Basques enchanted. Yet, up in Bilbao they hate Real most. Even in Madrid Atletico failed to became the arch-enemy of Real – Barcelona maintains this position. No matter what, Atletico is relegated to the third place in everything: in status, in success, even as a generator of hatred. An amusing and may be even lamentable situation – as far as Real and Barcelona are concerned Atletico’s title is not something to lose sleep about. To a point, Atletico’s successes are kind of unnoticed and rarely mentioned. Obscurity alone prevents evaluation of the team – how good they really were? Well, it was practically the same team winning in 1970. No Santillanas there, that was sure.

Sunday, February 7, 2010

Spain or Italy? Tough choice – which was worse among the big football nations? Unlike West Germany, down south football was stagnated. Well, since Netzer was going to Spain – Spain first. Dark years for Real Madrid. And for Barcelona. And for Spanish football in general – not qualifying for World and European Championships… not winning European club tournaments… the big clubs not winning at home… no Spanish players among the big stars… it was all relative, depending on the narrator’s bias. Atletico (Madrid) won its 7th title – great? Athletic (Bilbao) won the cup – also great? Legendary teams perhaps? May be… if one supports the above clubs and was actually alive then to see and is alive now to remember. Then another perspective: if one approaches from Real Madrid’s or Barcelona’s standpoint – what is the big deal? Some lucky winners… simply because ‘our’ guys were in crisis. But Spanish football is great and the Spanish league – terrific and always tough! Mm…

Athletic (Bilbao) – cup winners.
Top, left to right: Milorad Pavic – coach, Saez, Iribar, Marro, Carlos, Gisasola, Villar, Larrauri, J. Rojo, Aranguren, Zubiaga, Guillermo – assistant coach.
Bottom: Asrtain, Birrichaga – masseur, Igartua, Lasa, Arieta, Uriarte, J. F. Rojo.
In strictly Spanish terms – yes, there are some well known names (especially if we go exclusively Basque). From European standpoint? Only Iribar – considered the best goalkeeper in Spain and permanent national player… of the team unable to qualify to neither World nor European finals. If anything, this team provides some mellow political reflections: Franco was still alive and ruling – conservative anticommunist at best; fascist at worst. Using football for political ends though… which may be explaining the Yugoslav (hence, Communist) coach Pavic and the shoulder-length hair of Lasa. Amuzing at least… as well as the politics of the club: Athletic to this very day employs only Basques. Exclusively, no matter what. Never a single foreign player… but coaches were and are another matter in the twisted ultra-nationalistic concepts: from the day football was born in Bilbao there were foreign coaches. So nothing wrong an Yugoslavian to help increase the Basque glory… but no players! Irrelevant back in 1973, but interesting today, Bosman rule and all – seems the best way to curb the ‘rights of the employees’: after all, a player cannot hire himself to a club not wanting to hire him. Splendid. How about racism? I will leave the question unanswered.

As for this squad and the state of Spanish football at that time, it will suffice to remind who eliminated them in the Cup Winners Cup this same year – Beroe (Stara Zagora). Now, Bulgarian football never ranked highly, the Bulgarian league even less so, and Beroe traditionally are inconsistent mid-table club, often sinking to the Second Division (exactly where one can find them today). True, they had one of their best ever squads in the early 1970s, but this very squad also faced Second Division more than once. And they eliminated Athletic (Bilbao) with ease, which astonished the winners… no drama at all: 3-0 in Stara Zagora, and 0-1 at the stadium terrifying the likes of Real Madrid and Barcelona.

Saturday, February 6, 2010

Borussia (Moenchengladbach) collected the cup, which at the time was not yet some insignificant trophy. The club still was in great shape – and depending on opinion and bias, may be not even yet the best formation of the club. It practically contained the other half of the great West German national team, having Fogst, Heynckes (who scored 28 goals and finished second behind Muller league goalscorer), Wimmer, Bonhof, Kleff… and Gunter Netzer. Danish import doubled: Ulrik Le Fevre was replaced by young unknowns – Allan Simonsen and Henning Jensen. There was another young unknown coming after the season ended – Ulrich Stielike. Perhaps the names ring a bell? Some Barcelona and Real Madrid players? The very same. Netzer, however, was no longer to be – he was already falling out with the management, but his disappearance was related to something else: the opening of the Spanish market. He was the first big signing of Real Madrid.
Gunter Netzer. In the summer of 1973 he changed this jersey with even whiter one. Real Madird kind of win; as for Borussia it is not certain did they win or lose from the absence of the great, but difficult to handle midfielder.
Cup winners.

Wednesday, February 3, 2010

West Germany was: shirt advertisement was firmly established and unlike other countries, no club thought itself too proud to refuse. And unlike Austria, sponsors were not simply saving clubs from bankruptcy – the German system was sound and sober: sponsor money went for better teams, better stadiums, better youth system, financial stability. Nothing extravagant and hardly any ‘shopping spree’ – only five foreigners were bought in 1973, for example: 3 Swedes, 1 Dane and 1 Yugoslav. Big names – zero. True, the Germans took the cream from Atvidabergs FF (Sweden), and the club was never to achieve success again, but who cares? Swedes were amateurs… Torstensson and Sandberg were strong players, Benno Magnusson – so-so, Ralf Edstrom went to Holland – good bye, Atvidabergs FF. Welcome better Bayern, which took the lion’s share of the new recruits – to Johhny Hansen three new foreigners were signed: Conny Torstensson, Viggo Jensen (Dane from Odense), and Dusan Jovanovic (from OFK Beograd). Only Torstensson played. But as a whole West German football was getting better and better – competitive league, attacking fast football, high scoring, excellent fitness. After 1975 West German league was arguably the best in Europe and the place to be – 1973 was yet another step in the right direction, seemingly the only European country capable of grasping and employing quickly the total football.
Bayern and Borussia split championship and cup, the Bavarians getting the upper hand with their third Bundesliga title – Borussia had only two, but won the cup for consolation: they did fare greatly in the championship, finishing fifth. At least their ‘strategist’ Netzer was voted the footballer of the year, just like in 1972. Schalke 04 and Hertha ended miserably at the bottom, barely escaping relegation – both clubs suffering from the 1971 bribing scandal, in which the at least Schalke 04 was not main protagonist, but along with Hertha (who were) had the most suspended players (however, returning already to the pitch one after another). Hamburger SV were having measly seasons – they finished 14th, unlike Schalke 04 and Hertha, for entirely sporting reasons. The usual suspects were relegated - Eintracht Braunschweig and Rot Weiss Oberhausen. RW Oberhausen never returned to Bundesliga again.
1.FC Koln and Fortuna Dusseldorf took 2nd and 3rd place respectively – both clubs played significant role later in the 1970s, seemingly increasing the number of strong German teams – but neither club quite made it. Wuppertaler SV were surprise 4th – but it was overachievement. It is worth noting that some familiar name today – Werder Bremen and VfB Stuttgart – were mid-table clubs and Borussia Dortmund and Bayer Leverkusen – were not even playing in the Bundesliga. 1045 goals were scored in the season – the highest number so far in the history of league, and still one of the highest all-time numbers. Only 5 players were red-carded and sent off – the lowest ever number in the history record (shared with 1970-71 season). Attendance is another all-time record: the average of 16 387 per match is the all-time lowest… which produced sharp outcry of concern: what is wrong with German football? Well, attendance was steadily declining since 1965 and finally hit rock bottom. Next year jumped sharly up, though.

It was perhaps the finest ever season of Bayern (Munich): leaving the second in the table, 1.FC Koln 11 points behind (2 points for a win), almost perfect home record – 19 wins and only one tie, scoring 93 goals when receiving only 29. Just to illustrate the difference: the second best scoring team, Borussia (Moenchengladbach) scored 82 and they were considered the most attacking minded club at the time. As for defense: Fortuna (Dusseldorf) had the second best – punctured by 45 goals. Gerd Muller scored ‘only’ 36 goals (not his best at all), once again the Bundesliga top-scorer. It was the year Udo Lattek’s boys played the closest to Ajax’s total football. Which ironically enough gave them the idea to modify it in unseemly way…

Top, left to right: Seifert, Beckenbauer-captian, Roth, Hoffmann, Krauthausen, Hansen, Muller, Schwarzenbeck, Hoeness, Breitner, Maier, Udo Lattek – coach.
Bottom: Rybarczyk, Zobel, Zimmermann, Jorg, Durnberger, Rohr, Weiss, Wildgruber, Obermeier. Six European champions and at least two world-best players at their posts – Maier between the goalposts, and Beckenbauer in the libero position. The team was getting fine tuning more than sharp changes: the right wing was considered their weakness and Conny Torstensson, impressive in both club and national team, was signed.

Monday, February 1, 2010

‘Mittel Europa’ next, always hard to place. Certainly not perceived equal to France, especially at club level, but one never knew for certain – old memories of years gone still affected evaluations, at least before the referee started a match. After all, ‘Mittel Europa’ was the big European football when Austria had the Wunderteam. Long, long ago… the slump started after the end of the Second World War and by the 1970s Austrian football was in deep crisis and not only in strictly sporting terms. Financial difficulties, nothing new in the Alps, where football was never the most popular sport, increased. The number of paying spectators shrunk. Stars did not appear; clubs called it a day. Mergers were so many, it is difficult today to figure out who was who: the major difficulties are these – clubs often moved geographically from one city to another; mergers changed names, but later fell apart, followed by new mergers; apparently business was allowed not merely to sponsor clubs, but actually to merge with the clubs, leading to the inclusion of the sponsor in newest club’s name. When the sponsor withdrew, the club changed its name once again. But in the same time not every club merged with business sponsors, so the league was strangely mixed, and just to top the confusing list of peculiarities – league tables vastly differ: some use one kind of names, others – fully scripted names, third – abbreviations. Go figure… A crisis so deep lead to reforms – in the Austrian case, tighter financial requirements and reduced league after 1973-74 season. But in the summer of 1973 it was not only the old 16-team league – it was even increased to 17 teams for the next season. Meantime Swarovski-Wacker (Innsbruck) triumphed with third consecutive title, crowned with the cup as well – a double.

Top, left to right: Gebhardt –coach, Breuer, Gombasch, Skocik, Peter Koncilia, Rinker, Jara, Hattenberger, Kriess.
Bottom: Voggenberger, Eigenstiller, Rebele, Schatz, Friedl Koncilia, Lercher, Flindt-Bjerg, Kordesch.
Good enough for a double and additionally Robert Breuer was the top scorer of the season with 22 goals, but… this team looks more impressive from the distance of time. That is because entirely unknown players, Friedl Koncilia and Kurt Jara would become quite famous by the end of the 1970s. In 1973 it was still team depending on Austrian established, some regular national players – Skocik, Hattenbereger, some reliable names – the West German scorer Breuer, Kordesch, Gombasch, some hopefuls – Peter Koncilia (listed on the original photo old-fashioned way – Koncilia II), two more foreigners, noticeable only because they were foreigners – the West German journeyman Hans Rebele ( 2 caps for West Germany) and the Dane Ove Flindt-Bjerg. And soon enough most noticeable players moved away – beginning with Kurt Jara, who joined Valencia (Spain) immediately after collecting title and cup in 1973. But the most interesting feature of the team is the inscription ‘Swarovski’ on their shirts. Was it an advertisement or was it the club name? Then and now Swarovski is world-wide known firm, producing and selling many things around the world. Sponsors in 1973 of the club? Yes, but… at that time UEFA did not permit shirt adds in the European club tournaments, yet the Austrians played with exactly this inscription their two matches in the European Champions Cup. So it was the club name? Then what was the name of the club? In Austrian statistics it is usually listed as SSW-Wacker. In Europe at that time it was listed as Swarovski-Wacker. On the shirts ‘Wacker’ is missing.

Well… in 1971 FC Wacker (Innsbruck) merged with WSG Swarowski of nearby city Wattens. ‘Swarowski’ appears in the name of the original club because it was allowed by Austrian regulations – an infusion of the sponsor in the club. There were other clubs with similar official names already and there will be much more by the end of the 1970s. Anyway, the new merger was to be called FC Tirol (Innsbruck) – curiously enough, only the professional team, whereas youth teams were to remain separated and playing under the old names. Other Tyrolean club objected to this name and the new club was ordered by the Austrian Federation to change it – the new name produced was SG Swarowski-Wattens-Wacker (Inssbruck), abbreviated to SSW Wacker. Hence, ‘Swarowski’ remained in the official name of the club, eventually justifying the inscription on the shirts. Very likely this was the argument presented to UEFA, although nobody ever called the club ‘Swarovski’. Sneaky Austrians… Bayer (Leverkusen, West Germany) and PSV Eindhoven (Holland) were also firm clubs – and from foundation date – yet, they were not allowed to play with such inscriptions, although much more justified than the Austrians. The Aspirins were hardly a concern yet – they did not appear in the European clubs before the 1980s, but the club founded by and belonging to Phillips were regular participants in the European club tournaments – and played with plain shirts. At the end, Swarovski hardly benefited by the clever exposure – in the fall of 1973 they met CSKA (Sofia) and were promptly eliminated in the first round of the European Champions Cup. Bulgaria was not exactly the place to peddle merchandise at that time, inscriptions or no inscriptions.